Preheat a grill or a grill pan to medium heat.
Rub the cut sides of the garlic over both sides of the bread. Use a brush to distribute 1 tablespoon of the oil into both sides of the bread. Oil the grill or pan and grill the bread on both sides, about 1 minute per side. Transfer to plate.
Sprinkle the asparagus with ¼ teaspoon of the salt and ¼ teaspoon of the pepper. Grill the asparagus for 8 to 10 minutes, until tender. Transfer to plate.
In a large bowl, whisk together the remaining ¼ teaspoon salt and pepper, the remaining 2 tablespoons oil, and the vinegar. Set aside.
Cut the grilled bread into 1 inch cubes and the asparagus into 2-inch pieces. Add them to the bowl with the dressing, along with the tomatoes, beans, basil, olives, and ricotta salata. Toss to evenly coat in the vinaigrette and divide among 4 salad bowls.