This is what a healthy gestational diabetes diet looks like.
If you’ve recently been told you have gestational diabetes, a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy, don’t panic. “It’s not the end of the world. This is very common,” says Frances Largeman-Roth, RDN, nutritionist and cookbook author in New York City. The key to a healthy pregnancy with gestational diabetes, and giving your baby a healthy start, is keeping your blood sugar under control.
What Does Gestational Diabetes Mean for Me and My Baby?
Your gestational diabetes diagnosis doesn’t mean you had diabetes before your pregnancy, or will continue to have it after you give birth. The exact cause of gestational diabetes isn’t entirely clear, but researchers have some clues: During pregnancy, your body makes special hormones that support baby’s development and put your body through other changes, such as weight gain. These changes cause insulin resistance, which is when your body’s cells don’t use insulin well. All women have some insulin resistance as pregnancy progresses, but most can produce enough insulin to overcome the resistance. Gestational diabetes occurs, though,when your body is not able to make and use all the insulin it needs for pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can affect anyone (even women who aren’t at obvious risk for type 2 diabetes) but researchers believe weight and family history may increase risk of developing the condition.
When you have gestational diabetes, it’s absolutely critical to keep your blood sugar under control to keep you and baby healthy. Untreated or poorly managed gestational diabetes can cause problems for your baby, like being born too early, weighing too much (which can make delivery difficult), having low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) right after birth, or breathing problems. Taking action right away to manage your blood glucose levels can help prevent gestational diabetes-related pregnancy complications.
The first step? Adjusting your diet.
“The very first thing that you should start working on after you’ve been told you have gestational diabetes is your diet,” says Sandra Arévalo, RDN, a spokesperson for the American Association of Diabetes Educators. Food choices, amounts, and timing are all important in keeping your blood glucose levels in target range. Your health care team will help you create an eating plan that fits your lifestyle, and keeps you and baby healthy throughout the duration of your pregnancy. “It’s important that you visit a registered dietitian [or] diabetes educator to access what kind of foods you need to change right away,” says Arévalo. Until then, these five diet rules for gestational diabetes are a great place to start:
1. Watch your carbs
“Patients should be mindful of the number of carbs that they’re consuming in each meal and the type of carbohydrates they’re consuming,” says Sonal Chaudhry, MD, an endocrinologist at NYU Langone Health. Learn the difference between simple and complex carbs here.
2. Lose weight if your doctor recommends it
If you’re more than 20% over your ideal body weight, gaining weight during pregnancy at a slower rate or losing some weight may help better manage gestational diabetes. “Depending on their pre-pregnancy weight, [women] should limit the number of calories [to lose weight],” says Dr. Chaudhry. You can do this by eating a variety of foods including fresh fruits and vegetables, limiting fat intake to 30% or less of daily calories, and watching your portion sizes. (Make sure to discuss any weight-loss goals with your ob-gyn to make sure it’s safe during pregnancy.)
Many women who’ve had gestational diabetes go on to have type 2 diabetes years later, which could be due to excess weight (before, during, or after pregnancy), poor response to medication, or being young at the time of their gestational diabetes diagnosis. According to the American Diabetes Association, keeping your weight healthy during pregnancy and after the baby is born can improve glucose metabolism and help you avoid developing type 2 diabetes in the future.
3. Avoid excess weight gain
Weight gain is a natural, healthy part of pregnancy. Those extra pounds are from your growing baby; increased fluid, breast tissue, and blood volume; and maternal fat and nutrients. According to the American Pregnancy Association, women of average weight should gain 25 to 35 pounds, women who are underweight should gain 28 to 40, and women who are overweight should gain 15 to 25. Anything above those guidelines, or the limit your health care team suggests for you, could increase your chances of pregnancy-related complications.
4. Eat small frequent meals
Eating mini meals throughout the day (every two hours or so) can not only help with nausea and morning sickness during pregnancy, but spreading your carbohydrates evenly throughout the day can also help keep your blood glucose stable, which is critical for managing gestational diabetes.
5. Balance your meals.
“You really want to think about getting that blend of carbohydrates, protein and fat,” says Frances Largeman-Roth, RDN, nutritionist and cookbook author in New York City. For example, your breakfast might be oatmeal with a tablespoon of peanut butter and berries on top, and lunch might be a salad mixed with whole grains, like quinoa, and a lean protein, like chicken. Here’s how to build a diabetes-friendly meal.
00:00:00,267 --> 00:00:02,440
00:00:02,440 --> 00:00:06,540
The very first thing that you need to
start working on after you're told
00:00:06,540 --> 00:00:09,420
that you have gestational
diabetes is your diet.
00:00:09,420 --> 00:00:14,930
00:00:14,930 --> 00:00:18,066
So patients should be mindful of
the number of carbs that they're consuming
00:00:18,066 --> 00:00:21,190
with each meal, and the type of
carbohydrates they're consuming.
00:00:21,190 --> 00:00:23,780
And depending on their
00:00:23,780 --> 00:00:26,500
they should limit the number of calories.
00:00:26,500 --> 00:00:30,070
They should avoid excessive weight gain.
If you have just found out that you
00:00:30,070 --> 00:00:34,340
have gestational diabetes it's not the end
of the world, this is very common.
00:00:34,340 --> 00:00:37,850
But things that you can do to control
it and to manage it are to eat small,
00:00:37,850 --> 00:00:41,655
frequent meals, which is great
anyway when you're pregnant.
00:00:41,655 --> 00:00:45,275
And then to also to get
daily regular exercise.
00:00:45,275 --> 00:00:48,215
You really wanna think about
making sure that you've got that
00:00:48,215 --> 00:00:50,225
blend of carbohydrates, protein, and fat.
00:00:50,225 --> 00:00:53,515
breakfast that might be a bowl of cereal
00:00:53,515 --> 00:00:57,055
with a tablespoon of peanut butter and
also some berries on top.
00:00:57,055 --> 00:01:02,070
A snack could be an orange and
maybe a string cheese, and your
00:01:02,070 --> 00:01:07,750
lunch could be a salad with a small amount
of whole grains and also lean protein.
00:01:07,750 --> 00:01:10,270
So, your afternoon snack
might be an ounce of nuts.
00:01:11,380 --> 00:01:15,150
Walnuts, almonds, pistachios,
these are all great choices, and
00:01:15,150 --> 00:01:16,040
then a piece of fruit.
00:01:16,040 --> 00:01:18,230
And if you have a piece of
fruit with the skin on,
00:01:18,230 --> 00:01:20,440
that's even better cuz
you'll get more fiber.
00:01:20,440 --> 00:01:22,750
And then dinner would be a nice mix of,
00:01:22,750 --> 00:01:27,800
some roast chicken with
a side of asparagus.
00:01:27,800 --> 00:01:29,920
You're gonna get your folic acid, too.
00:01:29,920 --> 00:01:33,410
And then a small serving
of quinoa as well.
00:01:33,410 --> 00:01:34,590
Maybe you're not eating enough
00:01:34,590 --> 00:01:37,950
vegetables, maybe you're
eating too many carbohydrates.
00:01:37,950 --> 00:01:41,814
So it's important that you visit
either a registered dietitian,
00:01:41,814 --> 00:01:45,747
diabetes educator, to assess what
types of foods you need to change
00:01:45,747 --> 00:01:48,498
Patients with gestational diabetes
00:01:48,498 --> 00:01:50,400
are really motivated patients.
00:01:50,400 --> 00:01:56,500
And more often than not they're pretty
well-educated about the diagnosis and
00:01:56,500 --> 00:02:01,053
they're really eager to take whatever
00:02:01,053 --> 00:02:06,074
measures are necessary to optimize
the health of the pregnancy.
00:02:06,074 --> 00:02:08,939
How to Treat Gestational Diabetes. American Diabetes Association, 2013. (Accessed on January 25th, 2018 at http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational/how-to-treat-gestational.html)
What Is Gestational Diabetes? American Diabetes Association, 2013. (Accessed on January 25th, 2018 athttp://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational/what-is-gestational-diabetes.html)
Gestational Diabetes Overview. National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (Accessed on January 25th, 2018 at https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes/gestational)
Weight Gain and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Is a Sensitive Issue. Santa Barbara, CA: Sansum Diabetes Research Institute, 2008. (Accessed on January 25th, 2018 at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/31/1/e1)
Post-partum weight loss and glucose metabolism in women with gestational diabetes: the DEBI Study. Oakland, CA: Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2014. (Accessed on January 25th, 2018 at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4065174)
Pregnancy Weight Gain. American Pregnancy Association, 2015. (Accessed on January 25th, 2018 at http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-health/pregnancy-weight-gain)