Gum disease is more than just bleeding gums. Here’s what a dentist wants you to know.
Meh, so your gums sometimes bleed a little after you floss. It doesn’t hurt, so that means it’s no biggie, right? While you may think nothing of a little blood during your teeth cleaning routine, it’s definitely not something to, uh, brush off.
Gum disease is a serious infection of the tissues that surround and support your teeth. If gum disease is left untreated and becomes more severe, it can lead to tooth loss.
“There are varying degrees of gum disease,” says Jennifer Jablow, DDS, a dentist in New York City. “Most people have some form of what’s called gingivitis, which is a low-level inflammation of the gums. Full-blown gum disease is called periodontal gum disease, which also involves the bone, and that is quite serious.”
Gum disease is caused by plaque and bacteria that get stuck on the teeth and become calcified. The body reacts to this calcified plaque as something that’s foreign or a disease, which triggers inflammation to fight back. “The vessels open up and try to bring cells there to get and fight the bacteria. That’s why your gums become puffy, red, and bleeding,” says Dr. Jablow.
The Signs and Severity of Different Types of Gum Disease
“When I examine a patient, [the gum disease] is quite apparent from the inflammation,” says Dr. Jablow. The gum tissue isn’t as taut as it should be and it has the texture similar to the outside of an orange. “It’s usually more jelly-like, red, and angry,” she says.
Gingivitis is early-stage gum disease that often causes:
- Puffy or swollen gums
- Red gums
- Bleeding after brushing or flossing
Periodontitis is advanced gum disease—and it’s quite common. Chronic periodontitis affects 47 percent of adults over age 30 in the United States, according to the American Dental Association.
Periodontitis can lead to loss of tissue and bone that support the teeth and may become more severe over time. “If the gum disease is more advanced the teeth actually start to become loose, because the disease process has actually started to eat away at the bone and gums,” says Dr. Jablow. Other signs of periodontitis may include:
- Gums that have pulled away from the teeth
- Chronic bad breath
- Changes in the way your teeth fit together when you bite
- Changes in the fit of partial dentures
Aggressive periodontitis is a highly destructive form of periodontal disease. This usually means there’s a rapid loss of tissue and bone that may occur in some areas of the mouth or in the entire mouth.
Gum disease can lead to permanent tooth and bone loss, which is why it’s critical to get it treated by a dentist.
How Gum Disease Is Treated
The first step in treating gum disease is to get a deep cleaning by a dental hygienist.
If the gum disease is more advanced, you may have deep “pockets” around the teeth. Your dentist will measure these pockets to see if further treatment is needed. “If they’re more than five millimeters, there’s no way that your floss or anything can get down there to remove the bacteria, so it’s going to have to be mechanically removed with a deep scaling and root planing,” says Dr. Jablow.
Gum disease is serious, but may also show no warning signs, which is why it’s crucial to see your dentist regularly.
“I wish people understood how important it is to see your dentist twice a year and go for a mechanical cleaning,” says Dr. Jablow. “There’s absolutely no way your toothbrush or floss can reach some of the bacteria that’s deep inside your gum tissue, which is the predecessor to gum disease and possibly even tooth and bone loss.”
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There are varying degrees of gum disease.
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Most people have some form
of what's called gingivitis,
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which is a low level
inflammation of the gums.
00:00:11,100 --> 00:00:14,150
Full-blown gum disease is
called periodontal disease,
00:00:14,150 --> 00:00:16,150
which is also involving the bone.
00:00:16,150 --> 00:00:17,850
And that is quite more serious.
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Gum disease is caused by plaque and
bacteria that has stuck on the teeth and
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it's actually calcified on the teeth.
00:00:30,440 --> 00:00:32,590
And it's called calculus.
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The body reacts to the calculus
as something that's foreign, or
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a disease that shouldn't be there.
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And it starts what's called
the inflammation or inflammatory process.
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The vessels open up and try to bring cells
there to get and fight the bacteria.
00:00:45,990 --> 00:00:49,690
And that's why your gums become puffy,
red, and bleeding.
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Gingivitis can be a little
of a puffiness of the gums,
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a little bit of bleeding when
you're brushing or flossing.
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But nothing that's insurmountable, that
can't be fixed by visiting your dentist or
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your hygienist and getting a cleaning.
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If the periodontal or
gum disease is more advanced,
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it's that the teeth actually
start to become loose.
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Because the disease process has started to
eat away at the bone, and the gum as well.
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And what happens is the teeth become
loose, and you end up loosing the teeth.
00:01:16,060 --> 00:01:20,660
So when I examine a patient,
it's quite apparent from the inflammation.
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You can see that the gum tissue is not
tight and stppled like the outside
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of orange is stippled, it's usually
more jelly-like and red and angry.
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Gum disease is first treated by
deep cleaning by the hygienist,
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who's trained to remove the plaque and
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What's important, if it's even
more severe and progressed and
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we call it periodontal disease, and
you have what's called pockets.
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And we measure them with a tool and
it's more than five millimeters,
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there's no way that your floss or anything
can get down there to remove the bacteria.
00:01:54,020 --> 00:01:58,640
It's going to have to be mechanically
removed with a deep scaling and
00:01:58,640 --> 00:01:59,450
00:01:59,450 --> 00:02:03,520
I wish people understood how important it
is to see your dentist twice a year and
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go from mechanical cleaning.
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Because there's absolutely no way
that your toothbrush, your floss, or
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your water can reach some of the bacteria
that's deep inside your gum tissue,
00:02:15,897 --> 00:02:21,104
which is the predecessor to gum disease
and possibly even tooth and bone lost.
00:02:21,104 --> 00:02:21,865
Gum Disease. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. (Accessed on April 15, 2021 at https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/health-info/gum-disease/more-info)Gum Disease. Chicago, IL. American Dental Association. (Accessed on April 15, 2021 at https://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/g/gum-disease)